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Italy between 1922-1945 – The Rule of Mussolini

How did Italian Fascism rise and fall? You can learn about how did Mussolini come to power, the rule of Mussolini, Fascist Italy, and how did Mussolini die.

The rule of Mussolini in Italy started in the year 1921. This year, the Italian king’s, Victor Emmanuele III’s parliament amidst growing violence and chaos.

1921 fascist groups are going to the voting stations

The rule of Mussolini in Italy between 1922-1943

With the rise of fascism, the fascists were instructed in 1922 to wear uniforms that included black shirts. When they were in squads, they were modeled after the Roman Empire’s army groups. Also, all party members were considered being members of the fascist squad.

How did Mussolini come to power? First, in October 1922, Mussolini threatened to march on Rome and take control over the government applying violent force. The government of King Victor Emmanuele III was acting too slowly, eventually dispatching troops, but it was too late. The Fascists had already seized control of some local governments. While fascism was gaining more power, the king, Victor Emmanuele III refused to pass martial law, so he got to watch as thousands of armed Fascists marched into Rome.

1923 Voluntary fascist militia

The first act of Benito Mussolini as a Prime Minister was to demand special emergency powers that allowed him to rig elections into the Fascists’ favor. Soon after this, the Italian parliament, as well as the nation, learned, that being anti-Fascist became malpractice. This malpractice has been punished by imprisonment without any trial.

The communist politician Francesco Misiano is beaten and taken to the pillory
Funerals 6 Fascists were killed before the cease fire

May 30 1924: Matteotti ( see arrow) accuse the fascist govenment at the Italian parlament. He will be killed 10 days later

The Opera Nazional Balilla

In the same year of 1926, the Fascists created a group for youth called the Opera Nazionale Balilla. They were also pressuring the children to join these groups. Other formations of youth groups were illegal, and they suspended also the groups called the Catholic Boy Scouts.

Gathering of Balilla

The dictatorship of Mussolini before WW2

1923 Fascist patrolling the streets

The end of the rule of Mussolini in Italy

After three years of fighting in World War II, everyone in Italy knew that they will lose the war. On the 25th of July, 1943 Mussolini was voted out of power by his own Grand Council. He was also arrested at this time, right after a visit with the king, and he was sent to the island of La Maddalena.

Italy was prepared to leave the war, and they accepted the secret peace terms with the Allies. With this act, Hitler ordered German forces into Italy, which resulted in the catastrophe in the Italian towns and cities. As we know, many towns and cities were bombarded by germans, and as they were retiring, they’ve blown up many historical bridges and building all around the country.

The death of Benito Mussolini in Lombardy

So, how did Mussolini die? The exact story of Mussolini’s death seems to be blurry. One version is that he was executed by firing squad on the 28th of April, 1945, shot by soldiers firing several bullets. The other version says, that he was shot by a communist partisan called Walter Audisio, in Giulino di Mezzegra (a small town near Como). However, there were more names coming up after the war, so it’s still not certain who did it exactly.

Related https://www.lifeinitaly.com/history/italians-in-world-war-ii/

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